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      ByQinZhongchun,ResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo179,2012(Total4181)sCultivatedLandResourcesSincethereformandopeningup,Chinaseconomicandsocialprogresshasdevelopedcontinuouslyandrapidly,,Chinahasat,arelativelycompletepolicysystemhascurrentlycomeintobeingand,withthelandmanagementlawastheprincipalpart,thesaidsystemtakestheoverallplanforlandutilizationandtheutilizationcontrolasthemeansandadoptsastheinstrumentsthebasicfarmlandpreservationsystem,therequisition-compensationbalancesystem,thelanddevelopment,rearrangementandreclamationpoliciesaswellasthecultivatedlandpreservation,dlandresourcesandsuchmeasuresarebeingmadeincreasinglystrict,basicsupplyofcultivatedlandresourcesforfoodproductionandforothercropproductionsisafoundationforhandlingtherelationshipsbesedbytherapidexpansionofindustrializationandurbanization,Chinahasimplementedarigorouscultivate,Chinahasunveiledregulationsrestrictinganyw,thegovernmenthasformulatedandimplementedtheOverallPlanforLandUtilization,(15mumakeonehectare)ofarablelandbytheyear2020,andhastakenthisobjectiveasa"redline"thatmustbedefendedtenaciouslyandbroughtittoeffectineveryyear,atpresent,thecultivatedlandresourceshavebeenwellpreservedonthewhole,andthesupplyofarablelandresourcesforfoodsafetyhasbeenbasicallyguaranteed,,thankstothepreservationofthecultivatedlandresources,Chinasgrainacreagehasmountedupsteadily,andthecountryendedonthestate-formulatedOverallPlanforLandUtilization(2006~2020)tomapout,theyhavedrawnupvariouskindsofplansincludingregionaldevelopmentplansandurbandevelopmentplpreservation,theprovincesandmatedlandresourcesTherequisition-compensationbalanceofcultivatedlandresourcesisoneofthemostimportantmanagementmeasu,remarkableresultshavebeenachievedunderthesystem,notonlyprovidingvaluablespacefortheaccelerationofurbanization,butalsoeasingtoacertainextentthepressurecausedbynon-agriculturallan,thenati,200millionmuoflandresourcesofvarioustypeswererearranged,reclaimedanddevelopedwithgreatefforts,andthearablelandresourceswereincreasedby31millionmu,,betteringtheconditionsforagriculturalproduction,suchasfieldirrigationworks,networksofforestsandroads,improvingthequalityofthearablelandresourcesandlayingasol,currentlyvariouslocalitiesareseekingself-balanceormakinglandadjustmentwithotherlocalitiesmainlythroughexploitationofunutilizedlandonamassivescale,throughrenovationofsomepoorarablelandresourcesavailableinruralareasandthroughsupplementationandincreaseofarablelandresourcestoprovidelandquotasfornon-ag,inaccordancewiththepolicyof"supplementingarablelandresourcespriortolandoccupationforconstructionpurposes","supplementingthearablelandresourcesequivalenttothoseoccupiedfornon-agriculturalconstructionpurposes"and"makingarequisition-compensationbalance",relevantdepartmentsoflandandresourcesofvariouslocalitiesmakeinvestigationsandsetuplandrearrangementprojectsand,inthelightofthestate-issuedarablelandoccupationplansfornon-agriculturalconstructionandthearablelandsupplementationplans,,organizetheconstructionoftheprojectsaccordingtotheconstructionprojectmanagementmeasuresandexercisesupervision,ementedarablelandandimprovethequalityofnewly-increasedarableland,:First,theyhavepeeledthearablelayersoffthelandoccupiedbynewly-increasedroadsandditchesinthefieldsforconstructionworks,thefarmlandoccupiedbycentralvillagesorcompactcommunities,andslopelandrenovatedintoterracedfields,andmovedthepeeled-offfertilesoiltonewarablelandtoimprovethequalityofnewly-increasedarablelandandincreasethesoilfertility;second,throughcomprehensiveimprovementofthefields,waterresources,roads,woodsandvillagesintheprojectareas,theyhaveimprovedmedium-andlow-yieldfields,renovatedslopelandintoterracedfields,transformeddampfieldsandbuiltdrainageandirrigationcanalsandditches;andthird,basedonthestandardof100yuanforeachmuofnewly-increasedarableland,theagriculturaldepartmentshaveconductedsoil-testingformula-fertilizationintheprojectareasand,tomeettherequirementforagriculturalindustrializationafterthecompletionofprojects,haveputforwardsoilimprovementreportsandhavetestedthesoilimprovementaftercompletionoftheprojects.ByHanJun,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo1,2012Chinabeganruraltaxreformin2000,,,,designedtofundamentallyrectifyrampanttaxesandadministrativechargesinruralareasandalleviatefarmersburden,promptedpublicfinancetofullycoveragriculture,ruralareasandfarmers,triggeredamajorreformofruralsocialundertakingsandpublicservicesupplymechanisms,becameabreakthroughpointforreformingthedualsystemthathadseparatedurbanandruralareas,andushereders,farmers,allsortsofunreasonablefundraising,levie,unreasonablefundraisings,leviesandadministrativechargeswereregardedbyfarmersas"bottomlesspits"asthesetaxesa,therelativetaxandfeeburdenvariedwidelybeces,farmerswithapercapitaannualnetincomeof500yuanorlessthan1,%%useofexcessivelyhighfarmers,thissystemenabledthegovernmenttoexcessivelycollectruralsurplusfu,thissystemprovidedtoolittlebasicpublicproductsandse,ruralpublicproductsweremainlyprovidedbygrass-rootsgovernmentsandcollectiveorganizationsorbyfarmerswiththeirownraisedfunds,edandthefiscalresour,thegovernmentsbelowtheprovinciallevelcontinuedtocentralizetheirfi,andfinallytotownandtownshipgovernments,burdenbecamea"chronicdisease",viciousincidentsarisingfromfarmersburdenincreasedyearafteryearandexcessivelyheavyfarmersburdenbecameamajorproblemthatadedthetaxsystemthatappliedbothtoagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersandtoindustry,commerce,,eitherdevelopedonesinEuropeandAmericaordevelopingonessuchasIndia,agriculture-relatedtaxesareallscatteredinvarioustaxtypes,whichgiveequal,Chinastaxsystemhadremainedadualpattern:,themainpolicygoalwastorectifyrampant,thepolicyguidanceforruraltaxreformwasguidedby"alleviation,standardizationandstabilization".Inotherwords,alladministrativechargeswereabolishedandconsolidatedintounitaryagriculturaltaxandtherateofagriculturaltaxwasgraduallyloweredsoastoalleviatefarmers,whichcomprisedboththecommodsengagedinagriculture,,ithaddegradedintoafixedlandtax,ormoreaccurately,,therateofagriculturaltaxwassetatnomorethan7%ofthetotallandoutputinanormalyearandtherateofsurchargewassetatnomorethan20%,%,actuallyimplementedinmostplaces,wasundulyhighandbeyondtheenduranceoffarmerswhencomparedwiththeagriculturaltaxinChina%taxpaymentnearlyextortedallsurplusofgra,thedualtaxsystemrespectivelyforurbanandruralareasisaninstitutionalarrangementtoexploitagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinordertosupportcities,,theseexcessivelyheavyfarmersburdencouldbefundamentallysolvedonlywhenalltaxesexclusivelytargetedonfarmerswereabolished,whenthethousand-year-long"imperialgraintax"wasbroughttoanend,whenfarmersreceivedequaltaxtreatment,,ruraltaxreformsoonenteredintoastageofgraduallyreduche2ndSessionofthe10thNationalPeoplesCongress,heannouncedforthefirsttime,atotalof28provinces,autonomousregionsandprovincial,thestatedidnotimmediatelyintroducepersonalincomet,Chinabasicallyunifiedthetaxstatusofagricultureandfarmerswiththatofotherindustriesandsocialgroups,andfundamentallyremovedtaxsy,,,Chinashouldlessenagriculture-relatedtaxburdenforaconsiderabletimetocomewithintheframeworkofaunifiedurban-ruraltaxsystem.博金冠app官方网站ByZhangJunkuo,HouYongzhiWangHuiThereformandopening-upisakeymovedeterminingthefutureofcontemporaryChina,andisalsoakeymovefortherealizationofthe"twocentenarygoals",namely,tocompletethebuildingofamoderatelyprosperoussocietyinallrespectsbythetimetheCPCcelebratesitscentenary(2021)andtoturnChinaintoamodernsocialistcountrythatisstrong,prosperous,democratic,culturallyadvancedandharmoniousbythetimethePeoplesRepublicofChinamarksitscentennial(2049)andthere,itneedstoincreasethesustainabilityofdevelopment,releasethepotentialfordevelopment,improveeconomicoperationefficiency,,mmittee,"Chinawillupholdthedirectionofreformtowardthesocialistmarketeconomy,putthepromotionofsocialfairness,justiceandimprovementofpeopleslivesasthestartingpointandultimategoal,furtheremancipatethemind,continuetoreleaseanddeveloptheproductiveforces,andreleaseandstrengthenvigorofthesociety".Thisguidelineonreformisfocusedonsolvingthefairnessandefficiencyissuethroughdeepeningreformaswellasonsolvingtheefficiencyandgrowthissue,andthe"startingpoint"andthe"ultimategoal",aseriesofimportantreformmeasuresconcerningtheaboveissueshavebeenpromulgated,whichhavepromotedtheimprovementofefficiencyandfairness,,itisstillnecessarytofollowtheoverallarrangementsofthecentralleadership,implementallreformmeasures,andlayanew,thecentralleadershiphasattachedimportancetothesystematicity,integrality,andcooperativityofthereform,,ovetolowerlevelsatotalof416itemsrequiringadministrativeexaminationandapproval,rescindedorexempted348administrativecharges,iscalandTaxationSystem,andwilladvancethereformofthebudgetarysystemandthetaxationsystem,andwillacceleratetheestablishmentofasysteminwhichthegovernmentsadministrativeaistrationsystem,expandedtheareasforthepilotprojectof"replacingbusinesstaxwithvalue-addedtax",comprehensivelyreleasedthecontroloncreditinterestrates,setuptheShanghaiPilotFreeTradeZone,exploredthemanagementmodelthatcombinespre-establishmentnationaltreatmentplusthenegativelist,andpushedforwardthereformoftherailwayinvestmentandfinancingsystem,thepricesforresourceproducts,andgovernmentspurchaseofservices,ntsystem,sresearchanddevelopmentspendingaccountedforover2%ofGDP,andhasspurredanumberofkeytechnologiestomakesignificantbreakthroughs,,swell-beingasthefundamentalaimandgoalofitswork,lreliefsystems,fosteredthedevelopmentoffairnessineducation,launchedtheprogramofaidingthepoorwitheducation,improvedthebasicmedicalinsurancesystemthatcoversthewholepopulation,raisedthesubsistenceallowances,carriedoutpilotprojectsofmedicalinsuranceformajordiseases,gseriousandmajoraccidents,establishedaunifiedsupervisoryandadministrativemechanismforfoodanddrug,on,abolishedtheeducation-through-laborsystem,formulatedandrevised47administrativelawsandregulations,lengesHowever,weshouldalsobeawareofthefactthattheoldfairnessandefficiencyissueisyettobesolved,,therearestillmanyfactorspreventingtheimprovementofeconomicquality,enhancementofefficiency,seconomyisexperiencingatransitionalperiodofgrowthandthroesofstructuraladjustments,withtheinternationaleconomicenvironmentbecomingincreasinglycomplicatedanduncertain,thefactorsandconditionssupportingthedevelopmentundergoingprofoundchanges,andtheconflictsofunbalanced,uncoordinated,vingthequalityandefficiencyofeconomicoperations,bupbetweenthegovernmentandthemarketinapropermannerintermsofconception,system,,thetransformationofgovernmentfunctionsisnotyetaccomplished;toomuchgovernmentinterventioninmicroeconomicactivitiesandthelackofsupervisionstandsidebyside;,thepowerandresponsibilitiesofthecentralandlocalgovernmentsarenotreasonablyallocated;thefiscal,taxation,andfinancialsystemsarenotcomplete;theevaluationprocessforofficialsisdeficient;andthegovernmenttfields,thesocietywillloseitsvigorininnovationandcreation,andbeunabletotransformandrestructureitself,whichwillseriouslyaffecteconomicefficiency,andeveninducehugeeconomicandsocialrisks,leadingthesocietyintotheso-called"medium-incometrap".Therefore,wemustresolutelybreakdowntheinstitutionalobstaclesthatrestrictthevitalityofmarketplayersandtheoptimizationandallocationoffactors,allowthemarkettotrulyplayadecisiveroleinresourceallocation,andmakethegovernmentplayabetterrole,soastorealizeefficient,high-quality,andsustainabledevelopment.
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      ByLiuYunzhong,DevelopmentStrategyandRegionalEconomy,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo81,sdomesticregionaleconomicintegrationstructure,enlargingthesizeofthedomesticmarket,expandingdomesticdemandandbridgingtheregionalgapand,atthesametime,suchintegrationcanalsofacilitatethespatiahemarketentitiesindifferentp,theprocessofth,favorableconditionsarecreatedfortrans-regionalflowofproductsandproductionfactorsbymakinghandsomeinputandbygraduallyenhancingandeventuallyforminganinfrastructuresystem,suchastheclosely-knittransportationandcommunicationnetworks;,geographicallyadjacentregionseliminatethepolicybarrieragainsttheflowofproductsandproductionfactorsdependingonagreementsbetweengovernmentsand,guidedandmotivatedbylocalgovernments,regionalco-operationconstantlyimprove;,reasonablerelationshipframeworksbetweenthecentralgovernmentandthelocalgovernmentsaresetupbyamelioratingthelegalsystemforsafeguardingorderlyandeffectivemarketcompetition,soastoeliminatethepolicyandinstitutionalrootsimpedingtheflowofproduct,thoughtherehavebeenstudiesonthedegreeoftheregionaleconomicintegrationfromdifferentperspectives,thosestudiesusuallycallforapr,(usually,thereareintactandcompleteannualdata),whichisconducivetosizi,peoplesizeupthedegreeofregionaleconomicintegrationbyfiguringpricedifferences,tradecontact(suchasthetransportationvolumeamongtheregions)andinformationexchange(suchaspostandtelecommunicationsbetweentheregions),theproblemarisingfromthismethodisthepoordataavailability,,onomicintegrationbyobservingtheconnectionbetweeneconomicfluctuationsinvariousregions(administrativeunitsattheprovinciallevel).Generally,iftheeconomicconnectionbetweentheregionsisfewandfarbetween,thetrendsandfluctuationpatternsforeconomicgrowthbetween,thenthetrend,thechangingdegreeofconsistencyineconomicfluctuationsbetwe,theGRPgrowthandtheper-capita,,theeconomicgrowthrates(suchastheGRPgrowthrateorper-capitaGRPgrowthrate)ofvariousregionswillnotbedecomposedbuttherelatedcoefficientsbetweentheeconomicgrowthratesofvariousregionswillbeevaluateddirectly,andthechangingdegreeoftheregionaleconomicint,thedatadecompositionmethodwillbeusedtodecomposetheobservab,thechangeincorrelateddegreesofthetrendvariablesandfluctuationcomponentswillbediscussedsepa,thispaperusesthecorrelateddegreesoftheeconomicgrowthinvariousregionstoreflectthedegreeofthedomesticregionaleconomicintegration,:sbetween1952~2009,ofwhichaperiodof10yearsistakenasanintervaltocalculaterelatedcoefficientsandtoobservethechangeofthecorrelateddegrees;secondly,therelatedcoefficients,amethodforsizingupthedegreeofthedomesticregionaleconomicintegrationisacquired;thirdly,theeconomicgrowthratesofvariousregionsaredecomposedintotrendcomponentsandfluctuationcomponentsandtherelatedcoefficientsofthetrendcomponentsandfluctuation,twootherkindsofmethodsforsizin,theresultsgainedfromthecalculationofthefluctuationcomponentsaremorelikelytoconformtothetheoreticalrequirements;andfourthly,theannualrelatedcoefficientindexesbetween1991~2009havebeenfurthercalculatedinthispaper,whiintheabove-mentionedcourseisamatrixofrelatedcoefficients,whichmakesiteasytolearnaboutthecorrelateddegreesbetweenprovinces(municipalitiesandautonomousregions),,,therelatedcoefficientscanbecalculatedinarollingwayatregularintervalsso,itmayblurmanydetailedconnections,suchastheconnectionsinindustrialstructureandtradestructure,etc.

      1、防爆磁力泵

      ByZhangLiang,GuShuzhongWangYufei,ResearchTeamon"waterdevelopmentCountermeasuresforadaptingpriorityzones",ResearchI,2012(Total4224)Cloudwaterresourcesrefertothetotalofliquidandsolidwaterintheatmospheretha,2011that"constructionofdemonstrationareasforartificialprecipitation(snowfall)shouldbestrengthenedandcloudwaterresourcesshouldbedevelopedandutilizedinascientificway."InAugust2012,theGeneralOfficeoftheStateCouncilprintedanddistributedtheViewsonFurtherImprovingtheWorkonWeatherModification,specifyingmoreclearlytheimportanttaskof"reasonablydevelopingcloudwaterresources".,cloudwaterresourcesareanimportantchannelforalleviatingwatershortageinChinaDevelopmentandutilizationofcloudswaterresourcescandirectlyincreasethetotalamountofwaterresourcesandcanbeaneffectivesolutiontotheseasonalwatershor,artificialprecipitation(snowfall)canturncloudwaterresourcesintogroundwaterresources,andexperiencesandtheoriesbothathomeandabroadhavedemons,inthespringof2009alone,n11provinces(regionsandmunicipalities)innorthChina,aremarkablecontributiontodroughtalleviation,andafterthepromulgationandimplementationoftheWeatherModificationRegulationsin2002,thecountrywideartificialprecipitationreachedanaccumulativetotalofnearly490billiontons,cientificexperimentsshowthatartificialprecipitation(snowfall):20~1:25andthehighestcanbe1:40,andotherbenefitsincludingtheecologicalbenefitofartificialprecipitation(snowfall),Chinasaverageannualamountofcloudwaterresources(includingwatervapor)comesto22trilliontonsorso,yettheprecipitationefficiencyisonly28%orso(15%orsoinnorthwestChina),with87%,ifthecountrywidecloudwatercanbecompletelydeveloped,thelatentamou(snowfall)isveryshort-cycled(),waterintheaircancirculate42timesayear,theamountofwaterintheairwillthenreach1176trilliontons,theDevelopmentandUtilizationofCloudWaterResourcesbyForeignCountriesScientificbasesforthedevelopmentandutilizationofcloudwaterresourcesthroughartificialprecipitation(snowfall)havebeendemonstratedbyawealthoflaboratoryexperiments,(WMO)pointsoutthatweathermodification(includingartificialprecipitation(snowfall))esourcesindevelopedcountriesThemodernartificialprecipitation(snowfall),morethan30countries,includingUSA,Russia,IsraelandAustralia,,~1987,governmentorgans,suchastheBureauofReclamation(USBR),developedcloudwaterresourcesthroughjointeffortsbyusingthesilveriodidegeneratorontheplanetocatalyzeorographiccloudstogenerateaprecipitationof50,,artificialprecipitationexperimentswerealsoconductedoverRockyMountainsinColorado,CascadeRangeinWashingtonandWasatchRangeinnorthofUtah,increasingtheprecipitationby15%~20%.In1975,Israelstartedartificialprecipitationinitsnorthernparttoincreaseitswaterresources,withtheincrementreaching13%~15%.Australiahasbeeninvolvedincatalyzingprecipitationthroughoceaniccloudtestsfor12years,withtherainfallupby30%.Economicanalysisshowsthateachtonofprecipitationcostsabout4~5cents,whichgeneratesaninput-outputratioofabout1:ations(snowfalls)Since1958,Chinahasconductedaraftofartificialprecipitations(snowfalls),makinggreatcontributiontodroughtmitigationandincreaseincropyields,atalllevelsandundertheguidanceofcompetentmeteorologicalorganshasbeenformedgradually,thestructureofprofessionalshasbeencons,particularlysincethe2ndNationalWeatherModificationConferenceheldin2004,Chinasartificialprecipitation(snowfall)workhasbeenenhancedatafasterpace,andtheoper,in2011theareaofcountrywideartificialprecipitationregionsreachedmorethan5millionsquarekilometersandtheareaofartificialhailsuppressionregionssurpassed500,000squarekilometers,upby60%and25%,weathermodificationworkhasbeenconductedin2,235counties(municipalities,districts,andfarms)in30provinces(regionsandmunicipalities),includingtheregiment-levelfarmsofXinjiangProductionandCons,700weathermodificationworkersandatotalof6,902cannonsand7,034rocketlaunchersinthosecounties,aterresourcesFirstly,ChinasWaterLawprescribesthatwaterresourcesareownedbythestate,buttheLawdoesnotclearlydefinetheownershipofthecloudwaterresourcesandhasnotcategorizedcloudwateraswaterresourcesunderlaw,thusleadingtoanincreas,Chinausesartificialprecipitationmainlyasatechnicalmeanstofightagainstdroughtanddoesn,guidanceonthestatelevelhasbeenfewandfarbe,policiesandlawstouchuponthedevelopmentandutilizationofcloudwaterresources,theyhavenotstressedthedevelopmentandutilizationofsuchwater,,regardlessofoverallinterests,eachlocalityactsinitsownwayindevelopingandutilizingcloudwaterresourcesacrossChina.;

      2、博金冠app官方网站便携式轴重秤

      LiZhijunTheCPCCentralCommitteeandtheStateCouncilhave,basedonthestates863Program,973Program,theProgramfortheStudyandIndustrializationofGeneticallyModifiedPlants,andtheProgramfortheIndustrializationofNewandHighTechnologies,theexecutivemeetingoftheStateCouncildeliberatedandapprovedinprincipletheim,progresshasbeenmadeinthecultureofnewtransgenicvarieties,thecloningofnewgenes,transgenictechnology,bio-safetytechnology,andtheindustrializationofthesetechnologiesthroughcontinuedeffort,theStateCouncilissuedPoliciesforAcceleratingtheDevelopmentofBio-industry,inwhichitsetforwardtheconceptof"acceleratingthebuildingofbio-industryintoapillarhi-techindustryandoneofthestatesstrategicemergingindustries".:"Continuetocarryoutimportanttechnologicalprogramsforcultivatingnewtransgenicvarieties;acceleratethedevelopmentoffunctionalgenesandnewbiologicalvarietieswithhighpracticalvalueandproprietaryintellectualpropertyrights;promotetheindustrializationofnewtransgenicvarietiesonthebasisofscientificevaluationandadministrationaccordingtolaw."Effortsarebeingintensifiedandthelegalsystemrefinedfortheprotectionoftheintellectualproperty(IP)ofChinawing:Article25ofthePatentLaw;afewsectionsintheStateIntellectualPropertyOffices"GuidelinesforExamination";RegulationsonAgriculturalTransgenicBio-safety;theStateCouncilinJune2008andthePoliciesforAcceleratingtheDevelopmentofBio-industrydistributedbytheGeneralOfficeoftheStateCouncil,whichcontainexplicitrulesonreinforcingbio-safetyandIPprotection,,themainproblemsinthisrespectare:imperfectlegislation,whichisdisjointedandonalowlevel;inadequatemacro-coordinationbetweendepartmentsandweaklawenforcement;insufficiantstrategicmoveforboostingagriculturethroughscientificandtechnologicaladvancesTransgenictechnology,whichisessentialtomodernbiotechnology,isknownas"oneofthemajortechnologiesappliedmostrapidlyinhumanhistory".Touseittocultivatehigh-yield,high-quality,multiresistantandefficientnewvarietiescanreducetheinputofpesticidesandfertilizersandisverymeaningfulforeasingtheresourceconstraints,protectingecologicalenvironment,improvingthequalityofproducts,ationoftransgen,enthusiasticallyfollowedbydevelopingcountries,havedesignatedtransgenictechnologyasastrategicfocusforseizingthefuturecommandingpositionofscienceandtec,genomics,andinformationsciencehasspurredtherapidprogressoftransgenic;newgenes,propertiesandproductsareconstantlyemerging;,newtransgenicvarietiesaroundtheworldaretransformingfromfirst-generationproductssuchaspest/herbicide-resistantvarietiestosecond-generationproductswithbetternutritionandhigheryieldsandthird-generationproductssuchasindustrialproducts,medicine,,th,typicallysoybeans,cotton,maizeandrape,(1mu=1/15ha.)esolutiontotheconstraintsoffarmland,waterandotherresources,tonationalfoodsecurity,antstrategygearedtofutureglobalcompetitionandthespecializationofindustries,andavitalapproachtoensuringnationalfoodsecurity;itisalsoamajordevelopmentstrategyforboostingagriculturethroughscientificandtechnologicalaecultivationofnewtransgenicvarieties,trytoseizetheeconomicandtechnologicalcommandingposition,andacceleratethestudyandapplicationoftransgenictechnology,inordertoprovidescientificandtechnologicalsupportforthesustainabledevelopmentofChinaIPoftransgenictechnologyFirst,thedevelopmentoftransgenictechn,transgenictechnologyhasamajorimpactontraditionalIPintermsofthesubjects,objects,tationduringimplementationmakesitdifficultattransgenictechnologycombinesthepartialgenesofmicroorganisms,plants,animals,ande,takingadvantageofloopholesinWTOlegislation,somedevelopedcountriesrestricttransgenicbio-productswithgreenbarriers,fthelackofafinalconclusionaboutthesafetyofgeneticallymodifiedorganisms(GMOs)intheinternationalcommunitya,certainrestrictionso,regardingthedevelopmentoftransgenictechnology,developedcountrieshavepowe,thebiodiversityresourcesindevelopingcountriesareyettobeeffectivelelatedAspectsofIntellectualPropertyRightshasbroughtaboutanunprecedenteddevelopmentandunificationoftheglobalIPregime,buttheglobalgeneticresourcesprotectionsystembuiltaroundtheConventiononBiologicalDiversityhasjustbeenlaunchedandislessenforceablethantheAgreement,hencetheglobalsituationofthes,developedcountriesvoraciouslypreyonandtakecontrolofthegeneticresourcesofdevelopingcountries,developnewvarietiesofcropswithadvancedtechnology,applyforpatentprotection,andgainhugeprofitsbysellingtheresultstodevelopingcountriesaspatentedtechnologiesandfruitsathighprices.;

      3、座垫

      ,oftheinterviewedenterprises,25sawtheirsalesrevenuegrowingrapidly(byover10%),38sawtheirgrowingsteadily(by5%~10%),13sawtheirgrowingslowly(by0~5%)%,only1islistedand4arestate-owned,%%%oftheirtotalemployeesduring2007~2011,%,theave,9sawtechnicallevelsoftheirmanufacturingequipmentlivinguptointernationaladvancedlevelsand13sawtheirsreachingtheadvanceddomesticlevels,suggestingthatequipmenttechnologiesareofvitalimportancetoproductqualityandcompetitivepower,%ofthetextileenterprisesinChinawereshortofworkersinvaryingdegreesand,inthefirsthalfof2012,%,,17ofthe81surveyedtextileenterprisesthoughttheyhadsufficienthumanresources,yetmostoftheenterprisessaidthatitwasquitedifficultforthemtorecruitgeneralandtechnierelargeenterprises,%ofallsurveyedlargeenterprisesand,3ofthe9enterprisesalsomentionedtheyhaddifficultyrecruitingskilledworkersandthatthenewrecruitswerelesscapable,suggestingthatproblemslikelaborshortageandinabilitytoretainpersonnelexistatlargeandtheproblemsarenotmuch,6ofthe17enterprisesthatheldthattheyhadsufficienthumanresourcessawtheirsalesrevenueincreasingbymorethan10%inrecent3yearsand10sawtheirsupby5%~10%,%,suggestingthatenterpriseswithgoodbusinessperformancearelessboggeddowninseriouslaborsh,19weremedium-sizedandsmallandmicro-sizedenterprises,makingup76%,suggestingthatlargeenterprisesaremoreattractivetotalentedpeople.新万博manbet足球真人Urbanizationistheonlywayleadingtomodernizationandalongwith,urbanizationwillgothroughanaturaldevelopmentcourseandasophisticatedsocialdevelopmentcourse,involvingpopulationmigration,economicprogress,socialchanges,,ChinaorUrbanizationTransformationThefirstandforemostissueforthetransformation,which,however,featureshighresourceconsumption,,wemustabolishtheolddevelopmentpatternassoonaspossibleandturntotechnoloscities,especiallylargeandmedium-sizedones,boastalargernumberofinnovationtalents,institutionsandotherinnovationresourcesandhavethemostfatoleratingfailureanditcouldeffectivelycapitalizeonthegovernmentsroleinformulatingscientificandtechnologicalplans,supportingbasicresearchandgenerictechnologyresearchandestablishinginnovationplatforms,whilebringinginteatureofChina,weshouldchangeourconceptinurbanplanning,andgraduallyturntheurbanexpandingplanningtourbaulations,andsubstantiallyaddressthedivorcingofurbanconstructionfromurbanplanning,cityplanningvariedastheleadershipchanges,eandMajorDifficultyforUrbanizationTransformationUrbansocialde,urbanizationandmodernizationandrapidsocialandculturaltransition,theextensivepopulationflowingbetweenurbanan,alargenumberofruralsurpluslaborersswarmsintocities,bringingbothrichlaborresourcesforurba,theadjustmentoftheeconomicstructureinthecourseofurbanization,especiallythetime-consuminggovernanceofexcessproductioncapacityandtheeliminationofexcessproductioncapacity,haveresultedinalargenumberofdismissedpeopleandimposedgreatunemploymentpressureonurbansociety,,n,,astheoldconceptsandmethodsofurbansocialgovernancearebecominglessinfluential,newgovernanceconcepts,,w,weshouldenhancethefairnessandinclusivenessofcities,graduallynarrowdowntheurban-ruralincomegap,andeliminateactualdifferencesineconomic,political,culturalands,equalaccesstodevelopmentopevitalityofsocialorganizationsandcreatingaharm"constructivedamage"tourbanculture,orsevere"urbanculturaldiseases",whichisinessencethelossof"folkculture"or"nationalculture",importanceshouldbeattachedtotheculturalspiritandculturalfunctionofthecityandweshouldregardthecityasacarrierofcivilization,historyandpeople,theculturalconnotationofurbanpla,substantialeffortsshouldbemadetointensifyprotectionofhistoricationTransformationMajorproblemsinurbanmanagementincludetheinadequatelawsandregulations,inappropriateinstitutionallayout,,worsenedpollution,concentrationofpoorpopulation,look,wemustacceleratethetransformationofurbanmanagementpatternandestablishanewpatternfeaturingintensivenessandhighefficiencyratherthanextensivenessandlowefficiency,,ntocoordinateurbanizationindifferentregions,sparticipationandbuildasmartcityoutlookthroughwideapplicationofmoderninformationtechnology.;

      4、医用电子仪器设备

      ByHouYongzhi,GaoShijiandLiuPeilin,ResearchTeamon"TheSystemofEvaluationIndicatorsforScientificDevelopment",DepartmentofDevelopmentStrategyandRegionalEconomy,theDRCResearchReportNo62,2012Establishingthescientificdevelopmentevaluationsystemanddesigningaseriesofmeasurableobjectiveandsubjectiveindicatorsreflectingtheessentialrequirementofthescientificoutlookondevelopmentisanimportantwaytopromotesubstantialchangeofthedevelopmentpatternandpropelscientificdevelopment,andalsoaneffortonfundamenta,onlyacceptedbysociety,,contradictionsofimba"people-centered,balancedandsustainable"development,wemust,basedontheoreticalanalysis,learnfromavailabledevelopmentevaluationmethodsbothathomeandabroad,toacceleratetheestablishmentoftheunitorsystemevaluatingscientificdevelopment,wemusthavemoreprofoundunderstandingabouttheconnotationofthescientificoutlookondevelopment,andtranslatethecore,essentialelements,,weregardscientificdevelopmentas"people-centered,efficient,fairandsustainable".developmentshndevelopmentfromaholisticperspectiveandbyconnectingtheprinciplethat"developmentisthetoppriority"andthefeatureof"beingpeople-centered,balancedinanall-aroundandsustainableway".Without"beingpeople-centered"asthecore,wecanhardlydistinguish"developmentisthetoppriority"fromdevelopmentalism,highlighttheuniquesocialistdevelopmentpatternwithChinesecharacteristics,nomicdevelopmentandthatdevelopmentisofparamountimportanceintodayeultimatepurposeofdevelopment,whichistocreateconditionsfortheultimaterealizationofthe"absoluteliberalizationofpeople"and"all-aroundfreedevelopmentofpeople","putting-peoplefirst",inthecurrentstage,workingisatoolforpeopletoearnaliving,ratherthantheprimarydemandoflife;therefore,wecanhardlyrealizethe"absoluteliberalizationofpeople",thescientificoutlookondevelopmentisanapproa,theeconomicgrowthrateshouldmaintainahighlevelinthelongrunsoastocontinuces,fasteconomicdevelopmentshouldbebasedontheoptimizedstructure,llymotivateallsocialmembersenthusiasm,initiative,creativityanddynamisminstartingupbusinesswithinnovation,byestablishingsystemsandmechanismsbasedonequalopportunities,rightsandrules,sothatthemassescanfullyparticipateintheprocessofindustrialization,urbanizationandm,minimumsecurityshouldbeprovidedtothoselosingthecapabilityofworkandthosetemporarilyinneedofassistanceduetobusinessorologicalprogressSustainabledevelopmentconcernstheequalitybetweengenerations,andthekeyforsustainabledevelopmentistobalancethelivin,torealizesustainabledevelopmentandleaveenoughresourcesandspaceforlivingforfuturegenerationsdoesnmToestablishtheindicatorsystemevaluatingthescientificdevelopment,weshould,firstofall,understandproblemsinChinasdevelopment,weaknessesandstrengthsofavailabletheoreticalexplorationandpracticalexperienceinestablishingthedevelopmentevaluationsystem,andthenformulatescientificandrationalprinciplestodesignthes,Ch,thisprogressisfarfrommeetingtherequirementofscientificdevelopment,asinsufficientimportanceisattachedtopeopleandthedevelopmentshouldbemoreefficient,,manyregionsanddeparspectsofdevelopment,someonlocaldevelopmentorspecificdepartments,andctedbyothercountriessuchasBhutan,theUKandAustraliaandrelevantinternationalinstitutionsincludingtheUnitedNations(UN),theOrganizationofEconomicCooperationandDevelopment(OECD),emofscientificdevelopment,butcannotbedirectlyusedtoevaluateChina:first,thereisnocleartheoreticalconnectionbetweenindicatorsselectedindomesticresearchandexplorationandthescientificoutlookondevelopment;second,thereisstillagapbetweenindicatorsselectedininternationalresearchandexplorationandChinakondevelopmentandbysummarizingexperiencesintheoreticalandpracticaleffortsbothathomeandabroad,thispaperherebyproposessomebasicideasandprinciplestodesigntheevaluationindicatorsystem.;

      5、组合滑梯

      :,bringingwithitaconstantlyhighCenteroftheStateCouncil(hereinafterreferredtoastheResearchGroup)basedonthesixthnationalcensusdata,anaveshousingguaranteesystemhasformedandkeptimprovingamidstcont,theacceleratedconstr,Chinahadaddressedthehousingneedsofanaccumulativetotalof31millionurbanhouseholdsbyofferingin-kindbenefits,%ructionduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,,%,thegovernmentwillplayamorepos,despitecontinuouslyimprovedurbanre,thoughtotalurbanhousingsupplyhasincreased,censusdata,(flatswithbothtoiletsandkitchens)in2010(mosthouseswithoutindependentkitchensandtoiletswerebuiltintheperiodofthe1950sto1970s).Second,,,thereisunevenhousingdistributionamongurbanhouseholds:,since2003,,197yuanpersquaremeterin2003toRMB5,850yuanpersquaremeterin2013nationwide,%.Suchtr,higherincomeforurbanresidents,householdsfissionandincrease,governmentspolicyoptionofboostingrealestatesectorandgrowingdemandforinvestmentandspeculationinsomeperiodoftime,allconstitutefactorspropellingrapidurbanhousingpricerise(Figure2Figure3).劳力士手机下载;

      6、EC140BP

      太阳游戏官方网站ByChenDaofu,,2014(Total4617)"Unreal"ElementsInnature,(suchasexpectationforfuturepricehike,sometheoriesofassetspriceappraisal,derivativemoneythatisnotbasedonrealsavings,unreasonableimplicitguaranteesbygovernments,whichareakindofseparationfromthereality),thenationaleconomyformsinacertainlocalfieldaself-circulationsystemthatisinconsistentwithabiggersystem,butcanbemaintainedwithinaconsiderablylongperiodoftimethroughself-fulfillingmechanism,policy,cesofotherstructuresofthesystem,cehike(price-typebubble)orcontinuedincreaseofsupply(quantity-typebubble).Bubblesseasierfersdoesnotevolvealongasmoothcurve;insteadtherearerotationsbetweencentralcountries(inviewoftheevolvementhistoryofcapitalisminrecent500years,centralcountriesoftenfirstlyundergotheperiodofcommodityandserviceexpansion,andthengraduallydeclineinthefinancialexpansionperiod,withrotationsbetweendifferentcentralcountries1),,thedrivingforceofeconomicgrowthchangesandthemainsocialconflictchanges,sunderstanding,macropolicy,economicsystemandorganizationstillstayontheoriginalgrowthpath,orartificiallykeepeconomicgrowthspeedattheleveloftheprecedingperiodwiththehelpofrelevantsectorssuchassomeindustrialinvestmentsectors,realty,andevenconsumptionsectors,untries,tendstohavebubblesduringtheshiftingprocessNationalEconomyDuetovariouskindsofsubjectiveandobjectivecauses,therearelotsofseparationsatdifferentlevelsintheoperationofChinasnationaleconomy,andtheseseparationsformthreerelativelyimportantself-circulations,:doublesurpluses–,Chinaisapartofthe,,theFederalReservegreatlyloosenedmonetarypolicy,causingconsumptionbubbles,,someEuropeancountrieshavegreatlyincreasedtheissuanceoftheirtreasurybonds,keepingtheirinterestratelow,sexport-orieecountries,andmanufacturesa,andbeguntheirinfrastructureconstructions,s,creatinghugetradesurpluses,whichhavechanged,underthecurrentexchangesettlementandsalessystem,intothemoneyissuedbybanksandthecentralbanktoexportdepartments(whenmoneysupplyaggregateisundercontrol,moneyissuancebynon-tradedepartmentsissuppressedtoacertainextent).Underthespecificexchangerateandforeignexchangeadministrativesystem,themoneyisconvertedintohugeamountofforeignexchangereserve,whichisinvestedinfinancialmarketsintheUnitedStatesandEurope,bringingdowntheirinterestrate,providingthemwiththefinancialsupportforconsumingproductswithborrowedmoney,theunrestrainedUSdollarissuance(eddieMac)haveenabledsuchapractice(Figure1).;

      ByChenXiaohongWangHuaiyu,ResearchTeamon"StudyofGovernment-EnterpriseRelationsforStrategicEmergingIndustries",theEnterpriseResearchInstitute,theDRCThispaperfirstpointsoutthatChinasintellectualproperty(IP),throughco-operationbetweenthegovernmentandenterprisesinimprovingtheIPsystem,e-innovationTheOutlineforChinasStrategyofIntellectualProperty(abbreviatedtoOutline),thefirstoneofitskindpromulgatedinJune2008bytheStateCouncil,hasdepictedthestatusquoofChinassystemofintellectualpropertyanditsapplicationandputforwardtheguidelines,strategictargetsandprioritieslaiddowninChinasstrategyofnimportantcontributiontotheformationofChinasstrategyofintelle,sinceChinassystemofintellectualpropertyhascomeintobeingforashortperiodoftimeandrelevantresearchhasbeeninadequate,ndentintellectualpropertyareinferiorinChina,peoplehadtofindoutwh,theOutlinealsoholdsthat"policiesandmeasuresrelatedtointellectualpropertyinlinewithnationalconditionsshouldbeadoptedvigorouslytoboostnationaldevelopment".Intermsofnationalcondition,exceptfortheemphasisontheprotectionofintellectualpropertyrightsinspecialareas,otherconspicuousmeasureandmethodshavenotbeenlaiddownintheOutlineItisattributabletothelessanduncleardiscussionoverthestatusquoandstrategisofthethenChineseenterprisesortechnicalinnovationandalsoduetothelessunderstandingoftheselectableplansforstrategiesandsystemofllectualproperty,itwil,withoutdefiniteandclearsolutionstotheproblems,itwillstillbehardtohaveacommonunderstandingofthetybasedontheguidingideologyconduciveto"re-innovation"yindependentand,ifChinascommitmentmadeatitsaccessiontoWTOisarestrictiveterm,thisformationmustbeinlinewithChinasnationalconditions,andespeciallyconformtoandcoordinatewiththestatusquoanstrategyoftechnicalinnovations(orinventions),technicalinnovationstrategiesandsignificanttechnicalinnovationstrat,,suchas20oreven30yearsinthefuture,icalsourceofothers,whichisknownastheenhancedinnovation(includingmajorenhancedinnovations).IntegratyconductedbyChineseenterprisesaremainlysecondaryinnovationorre-innovationandthatthesecondary-innovation,inthecontextoftheglobalizedmanufacturingindustry,willremaintheimmediatechoicefortheimprovementoftechnologiesforChina,arenownedJapaneseeconomist,wroteapaperin1999holdingthatuptothe1990simportantindustrtedinthesameyearalsofranklyimportedbasictechnologiesfromUSAandEuropeancountriesandhasimprovedthetechnologiesandusedperfectcapabilitiestomakenecessaryenhancementoftheproductionsites".EvenamongsevencategoriesofstrategicrisingindustrieslistedbyChinaandtobedevelopedin23direction,mostareindustrieswithtechnologiesfromdevelopedcountriesandareevensuccessfullycommercialized,withafewnumberofindustrialtechnologiesremainingunripe,butforeigncountriesaremostlytak,notonlyinChina,butevenindevelopedcountriessuchasUSA,ategicimportancetoChinasinnovationsatitspresentdevelopmentstageandinlightofChinafintellectualpropertyonthebasisofdefiningthebasicfeaturesandstrategiesoftechnicalinnovation:Weshouldnotonlystrengthentheprotectionofintellectualpropertyofsuperiorobjectsandshouldallthebetterpayspecialattentiontotheencouragemlogicalprogressinindustriesneedingcontinuousandintegratedinnovation,strengtheningmotivation,supportandapplicationofre-innovationshouldbeanimportantresearchtopicforChinasstrategyofintellectualpropertyandbeanimportantorientationforthereadjustmentofChinatheprotectionoforiginalinnovation(orinvention)butislayingspecialemphasisonmotivatingthere-inventor(technicalinventor)whenbalancingtherighsystemofintellectualpropertyisinclinedtowardsoriginalinnovators(technicalinventers)andtheJapndregulationsgivingimpetustore-innovation,theinterrelationsbetweentherulesandregulationsandthemethodsofapplication,,thispaperwillnotdealwiththerelationsbetweenoriginalinventionandre-inventionindetail,butstillwantstopointoutthatpayingattentiontore-inventionorsecondary-innovation,asshownbyJapaneseexperience,willnotimpaistemofintellectualproperty(includingcoordinationwithrelevantsystems)shouldsupportandprotectre-innovationisvirtuallystressingthatthedesigningofthesystemshouldconformtrom"abusingtheiradvantages"bycapitalizingontheirforwardinventionsandintellectualpropertytohamperChineseenterprisesfromd,culture,roadconstruction,,governmentsatalllevelandintensity,andruralsocialundertakingshavebeendevelopingrapidly....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByWuZhenjun,ResearchTeamon"PoliciesforYunnanDevelopmentofAgriculture,FarmersandRuralAreas"ofDRCResearchReportNo32,oductsBygivingplaytothecharacteristicsoftheresourcesandadvantagesoftheproductivebasesofitsdifferentregions,theprovinceofYunnanhasgivenscashcropsreached42millionmuin2010(15mumakeonehectare)andanoverallarrangementofrawmaterialbasesofcompetitiveagriculturalprod,theprovincehascementedandenhanceditscompetitiveindustrieswithtraditionalcharacteristics,suchastobacco,,,000tons,rank,~~20milliontons,withboththecultivatedareaandtheoutputmakingup16%orsoofthenationaltotal,,,%ofthenationaltotal,rankingtopinthecountry,andtheteaoutputhadreached207,000tons,%ofthenationaltotal,,theprovincehasacceleratedthed,thecultivatedareaofflowersinYunnanreached581,000mu,rankingfirstinthecountry,andtheoutputoffreshcutflowersrankedtopinthecountry,,thecultivatedareaofcoffeeinYunnanreached646,000mu,withaproductionof49,000tons,makingupmorethan99%and98%recentyears,thenumberofleadingenterprisesofagricultureindustrializationhasincnhavebeenbroughtupandtheg,thenumberofleadingenterprisesofagricultureindustrializationreached2012inYunnanandthenumberofvariouskindsoffarmproduceprocessingenterprisesabovethedesignatedsizereached1,omeinvolvedindistinctiveandcompetitiveindustries,fosteringenterpriseclusterswithdistinguishingfeatures,theto,344foreignenterprisesandover400enterprisesfromotherprovinceshavecometoYunnanforcultivation,breedingandprocessingofagriculturalproducts,whichwillfurtherpromotetheoveralllevelofthelorganizationlevelThenumberoffarmersprofessionalco-operativeorganizationshasincreasedrapidlyinYunnaninrecentyears,,thenumberoffarmersprofessionalco-operativeorganizationswidelyscatteredinvariousagriculturalindustries,suchastobacco,sugarandcoffee,hadincreasedto10,,,thenumberoffarmersprofessionalcooperativesregisteredatindustrialandcommercialauthoritieshadincreasedto7,lightoftheguidingprincipleof"VigorousGovernmentMotivation,CorrectMarketGuidance,ImpetusbyLeadingEnterprisesandActiveParticipationbyFarmers",theprovinceofYunnanhasdevotedmajoreffortstostartingtheconstructionofagriculturalstandardizationsyste,Yunnanhadformulatedandpromulgatedatotalof1,152localagriculturalstandardsandcriteria,,Yunnanhasconstructedatotalof134standardizationdemonstrationprojects,chcompetitiveanddistinctiveagriculturalindustriesascoffee,silkworm,flowers,youngforestplantsandspiceoil,,Yunnandevelopedatotalof4,658tobaccocooperativesand240,000productionhouseholds,,%oftheprovincialtotal,andrealized100%,suchprefecturesandmunicipalitiesasLincang,Dehong,PuerXishuangbannaandWenshanofYunnanhavevigorouslydevelopedsugarcanecultivationvillagesandteams,,,with57cultivationvillagesand154teamsbuilt,ofwhich,,coveringanareaof434,000mu,%.sputfortheffortstoadvancetheconstructionofthefarmproducecirculationmarket,improvedthemarketservicefunctions,initiallysetupthemodernfarmproducecirculationplatform,enhancedtheefficiencyoffarmproducecirculationandresolved,toacertainextent,thedifficultyfacingfarmers,cooperativesandagriculturalenterprisesinmarket"buyingandselling".Firstly,,Yunnanhassetupanaccumulativetotalof15,,Yunnanhadsetup213,000ruralcommercialnetworksunderthecountyleveland2,600farmersmarketshavebeenlistedasthestate-level"Double-HundredMarketProjects"(therenovationof100large-scaleagriculturalproductswholesalemarketsandthecultivationof100agriculturalenterprisesforcirculation-notesaddedbythetranslator).Yunnanhasinitiallyformedthemarketsystemwithwholesalemarketsplayingtheleadingrole,regionalmarketsasthemainstay,urbanandruraltrademarketsasthebasisandlarge-,,rmproducecold-chainsystem,theretraceablequalitysafetysystem,logisticsanddistributioncenters,inspectionandtestingcenters,safetymonitoringcenters,sewageandwastetreatmentcenters,,Yunnanha,thecommercialdepartmentsofYunnanhaveactivelyorganizedandstartedtheconnectionofagriculturalproductswithsupermarkets,enablingmorefarmproducecirculationenterprises,farmersco-operativeorganizationsandsupermarketstoparticipateintheaforesaidconnection,soastoimprovetheefficiencyinfarmproducecirculation.博金冠app官方网站ByMaJunXiangAnbo,ResearchTeamon"theReformoftheManagementSystemofState-ownedAssets"ofEnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCResearchReportNo160,2014(Total4659)Improvingthemanagementsystemofstate-owne,implementation,andsupervisioninthehopeofimprovinggovernmentalmanagementsystemoverstate-ownedassets,regulatinggovernmental,wesuggesttoimprovecorporategovernance,maintainenterprisesstat,amanagementsystemofstate-ownedassetsshouldbeestablishedinwhichgovernmentaladministrationisseparatedfromenterprisesmanagement,authoritiesmatchresponsibilities,effecti,wecan,ontheonehand,strengthensupervisionandadministrationofstate-ownedassets,withmanagingthecapitalasthemajortask,andhelpstateeconomytogainmorevitality;ontheotherhand,wecansetupadynamicadjustmentmechanismforstate-ownedassets,n,bottom-linethinkingandgradualadvancement,m,letalonefallingintoformalism,,theprimaryproblemofstateassetsmanagementsystemist,thegoalofthisreformshouldbefocusedonrejuvenatingstate-ownedenterprises,especiallythoseinthecompetitivedomains,andestablishingareasonablemechanismforadjusti,developmentmodesaswellassystemsandinstitutions,,disharmonyandunsustainabilityinthecountry,,thereformschemeforstate-ownedassetsmanagementsystemshallbeembeddedintotheoverallconsiderationofthecountryover150thousandenterprises,,short-termmeasuresshouldbeconsistentwiththelong-termgoals;top-leveldesignwithanoverallconsiderationshouldbeintegratedwithexplorationandpilotprojectsinsomedomains;comprehensi(SOEs)reformandthescientificassessmentofpresentmanagementsystem,weshallidentifythemainproblems,advancethereforminawell-mesticandforeignexperience,aneffectivestateassetsmanagementsystemshouldbecomposedofthreeparts:governmentaldepartments,investme,shoulderingtheircorrespondingrespo,onbehalfofallthepeople,,thegovernmentisinchargeofformulatingpublicpoliciesconcerningtheadjuetwoproblems—lackofduefunctionsandunnecessaryintervention."Lackofduefunctions"indicatesthatstateassetsarenotgivenafullplayinthesocietyandeconomyastheirfunctionsanddistributionarenotadjustedintimeaccordingtothecountrysdifferentdevelopmentstagesandmarketchanges."Unnecessaryintervention"meansthatnominallytheState-ownedAssetsSupervisionandAdministrationCommissionoftheStateCouncilisaninstitutionspeciallydesignedformanagingstateassets,whilesubstantiallyitisagovernmentaldepartment,whichnotonlyintervenestoomuchintheenterprisesmanagement,,sincetheState-ownedAssetsSupervisionandAdministrationCommissionwassetup,theresponsibilitiesoftheinvestorhavebeendetermined,solvingtheproblemof"manydepartmentscontrol,butnonetakesresponsibility".Thishas,onaccountofsomeinternalandexternalfactors,theState-ownedAssetsSupervisionandAdministrationCommissionhasincreasinglyexpandeditsduedutiesinadministrating"personnel,affairsandassets",leadingtoamoreseriousmixingofgovernmentaladministrationandenterprises,whileservesasanadministrativedepartmentw,tntationfromsupervisiontoimprovethegovernmentalmanagementsystemofstateassets,regulategovernmentalmprovecorporategovernance,eliminateimproperadministrativeinterventionandensureenterprisesindependentmanagementinthemarket.ByLiuTao,ResearchTeamon"PolicyofOptimizingtheCirculationSystemofAgriculturalProductsinChina",InstituteofMarketEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo88,SpecializedCooperativesinChinaBasedonsurveysmadeinWeifangCity,ShouguangCityandChangleCountyofShandongProvince,inZhengzhouCityandXinyeCountyofHenanProvince,inChengduCityofSichuanProvince,aswellasinShanghai,wehavefoundthatrecently,especiallyaftertheofficialimplementationoftheLawofthePeoplesRepublicofChinaonSpecializedFarmersCooperativesin2007,thefarmerduallyenhancedBythefirsthalfof2011,therewerealready446,000farmersspecializedcooperativesnationallyregisteredinChina,ion,accountingforabout12%,thetotalamountofcontributionsofthefarmersspecializedcooperativesaroundChinawentupfrom90billionyuanin2007to570billionyuaninthefirsthalfof2011,,thefarmersspecializedcooperativesinShandong,Henan,andsomeotherplacesarethefastestintermsofdevelopment,amo,thefarmersspecializedcooperativesregisteredinShandongProvincewerenearly50,000,%,000andthetotingindustryThedevelopmentofthefarmersspecializedcooperativesinChinahasgraduallyspreadtoanumberofdifferentsectors,includingplanting,breeding,agriculturalmachinery,plantprotectionandtechnicalinformation,withcropfarmingandanimalhusbandrytakingthelion%%.Therefore,theamountofcooperativesinthesetwofieldsholds73%,thespecializedcooperativesinmanyplacesc,,thespecializedcooperativesincropfarminginShandongProvinceare24,594,%,669,%cesrelatedwithagriculturalproductionoperationwhichhasreached14,249,%alesandproductionserviceWiththerapidgrowthinrecentyears,theareasofoperationandrangesofservicehaveexpandedfromtheinformationservicetovariouslinksincludingagriculturalmaterialssupply,agriculturaltechnologyspreading,processing,storage,,ShandongProvince,itislearntthatthecooperativesfocusedonsalesasmajorserviceaccountforabout53%,technicalconsulting,technicaltraining,andsupplyofmeansofproductionholdfor32%.Theonescenteringonprocessingservicetakeup12%,somecooperativeshave,throughpilotpractice,candcross-sectordevelopmentswitnessafastgrowthWiththeexpansionofmanagementscaleandtheintensifiedmarketcompetition,somecooperativeshavescwholebas,,theShouguangXinMengFruitsandVegetablesSpecializedCooperativeUnionestablishedinJuly2011istheonlytrans-regionalcooperativeunionwiththemostnumberofcooperatives,thelargestmembers,nan,Weifang,Weihai,(twojinmakeonekilo)"cooperativeplusfarmers"asthemajorpatternAtpresent,thereareaboutfourtypesofoperatingmodesrelatedtofarmers"cooperativeplusfarmers".Suchcooperativesaregenerallythevoluntaryorg"cooperativeplusproductionbasesplusfarmers".productionbasesandtheybuyorsellthemembers"leadingenterprisespluscooperativesplusfarmers".Suchcooperativesarees"cooperativeunionplusfarmers".This,processing,andmarketingtoget"cooperativesplusfarmers"isthemajorformoffarmersspecializedcooperativesinShandongProvinceamountedto470,000,%,%,zedcooperative,thetypeof"leadingenterprisepluscooperativeplusfarmers"%%respectivelyinthetotalamountofthecooperativesinthetwoProvinces. 


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